Virginia Shallow Water Monitoring Program DATAFLOW

Metadata:


Spatial Data Set Title:
Shallow Water Monitoring Program – Dataflow

Abstract:
This monitoring project consists of 12 CBP segments (YRKPH, YRKMH, JMSOH, JMSTF1, JMSTF2, CHKOH, APPTF, RPPMH, RPPOH, RPPTF, CRRMH, POTMH ) which are monitored monthly using a high spatial and temporal resolution flow through sampling system (Dataflow) that records water quality parameters in conjunction with latitude and longitude every 3-4 seconds along a cruise track.  It includes verification data sampled at stations along the cruise track.

Purpose:
Monitoring water quality within Chesapeake Bay Tributaries.

Originator:
VIMS - College of W&M

Time Span:
12 Mar – 13 Nov, 2007

Progress:
Complete

Maintenance/Update Frequency:
As Needed

Access Constraints:
Not Applicable

Use Constraints:
Not Applicable

Subject Keywords:
Monitoring, Nutrients, Salinity, Tributaries, Water, Water Quality, Dataflow, Turbidity, Light Attenuation, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence, PAR

Place Keywords:
York River, James River, Appomattox River, Chickahominy River, Rappahannock River, Corrotoman River, Lower Potomac River, Nomini River, Coan River, Yeocomico River, Lower Machodoc River, Mattox Creek, Rosier Creek, and Upper Machodoc Creek, Virginia (VA), USA

Bounding Box:
W -77.453413 E -76.232670 N 38.320597 S 36.884200
                                 
Distribution Contact:
Britt Anderson Parker
Marine Scientist Program Supervisor
VIMS - College of W&M
PO Box 1346
Rt 1208 Greate Rd
Gloucester Point, VA 23062      
804-684-7865

Distribution Liability:
The user of this database should carefully review all pertinent documentation.  All water quality data are submitted or translated to the format described in the Water Quality Database Design and Data Dictionary.

Target Audience:
Scientists

Geographic Description:
York River, James River, Appomattox River, Chickahominy River, Rappahannock River, Corrotoman River, Lower Potomac River, Nomini River, Coan River, Yeocomico River, Lower Machodoc River, Mattox Creek, Rosier Creek, and Upper Machodoc Creek, Virginia (VA), USA

Attribute Accuracy Report:
All data generated by the laboratory is subjected to QA/QC protocol and peer review.  Instrument maintenance is performed and recorded in instrument manuals.
 
Within-organization QA data: To assess within-organization precision and accuracy, approximately 10% of the chemical analyses for each parameter are analyzed in duplicate and spiked in the laboratories.  These data are maintained as separate data sets and are not included within the water quality database.  At some stations, field replicates are also generated, and these are reported and included within the water quality database.

Field QA Data: Field precision is estimated with field replicates of at least 10% of field samples taken.
                              
Inter-organization QA data: The Coordinated Split Sample Program (CSSP) was organized to include all the laboratories in the CBP.   Mainstem laboratories have analyzed split samples quarterly since June 1988, sending mainstem samples to the three mainstem laboratories, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL), VIMS, and ODU, as well as the two main tributary laboratories, Maryland Dept of Health and Mental Hygiene, (DHMH), and Virginia Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS).  Over time the CSSP has grown to include three components (mainstem, tributary, and fall line) each including three to five labs that analyze samples from similar salinity regimes and concentration ranges.  For the tributary component, labs analyze triplicate field samples that are collected quarterly. For the mainstem component, the sample design was identical to the tributary component until 1999.  Starting in 1999 labs analyze quadruplicate field samples that are collected quarterly.  Two of the samples are analyzed for each parameter, and the other two samples are analyzed on a separate analysis day for each parameter.  The data are analyzed at the CBP and reported to the Analytical Methods and Quality Assurance Workgroup (AMQAW).  The goal is to identify parameters that have low inter-laboratory agreement, estimate the measurement system variability, and then take action to increase the level of agreement.  These data are not included in the water quality database.  Refer to AMQAW, ''Chesapeake Bay Program Coordinated Split Sample Program Report 1994-1998'' at website www.cheaspeakbay.net/pubs/1000.pdf.  Another aspect of quality assurance is detection limits.  The minimum detection limit (MDL) is the lowest concentration of a parameter that the measurement system can detect reliably.  At participating laboratories, the MDL is currently determined from three times the standard deviation of seven replicates of a low-level ambient water sample.  In the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) database, when measurements are below the MDL, the value of the parameter is set to the detection limit and the associated detection limit field, QUALIFIER, is set to ''<''.  Detection limits for many parameters have been lowered over the life of the program. 

Laboratory QC: Within-organization laboratory precision and accuracy are estimated with laboratory replicates and laboratory spike samples.  Ten percent of samples coming into the laboratory are randomly selected (on a parameter by parameter basis) for lab replicate analysis.

Logical Consistency Report:
None

Completeness Report:
Shallow water monitoring cruises utilizing Dataflow were scheduled once a month from April through October 2007 to include all 12 CBP segments involved in this study (YRKPH, YRKMH, JMSOH, JMSTF1, JMSTF2, CHKOH, APPTF, RPPMH, RPPOH, RPPTF, CRRMH, POTMH).  A cruise covering only the YRKPH and YRKMH segments was scheduled for March and November 2007.  All cruises took place as scheduled for a total of 110 cruises.  A total of 74 verification stations were sampled for each month, 5 in each segment plus a duplicate.  For the 2007 period, A total of 542 of 543 scheduled verification stations were sampled over the course of the year, with only one station missing in the month of October due to equipment malfunction. 
 

Horizontal and Vertical Accuracy Report:

A WAAS enabled Garmin GPSMAP 168 using NAD83 is used on the boat to determine position in associated with each data point and to determine verification station location. 

Process Description:
Samples were collected at 74 verification stations each month.   At each station, water samples were taken from the effluent tubing of the dataflow unit for physiochemical and nutrient data.  Water for CHLA and the suite of nutrients was filtered immediately on board the vessel and all samples were iced until return to the laboratory where they were frozen.   Presently, for the NO23F, NH4F, PO4F, NO2F, TDN, and TDP analysis, a Skalar CFAA system is used.  For CHLA and PHEO a Turner Designs TD-700 Laboratory Fluorometer is used.  For Dataflow parameters WTEMP, SPCOND, SALINITY, DO_SAT, DO, PH, TURB_NTU, FLUOR, and TCHL a YSI 6600 sonde unit is used.  For DEPTH, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, and BOAT_SPEED a Garmin GPSMAP 168 WAAS enabled GPS unit is used.  The methods are found in the METHOD column, which corresponds to a method code. All data is either downloaded directly or entered into Excel and visually inspected.

The methods used are as follows:

PARAMETER: CHLA
CBP METHOD: L03
EPA METHOD AND OTHER DESCRIPTION: Filters are placed in 90% aqueous acetone and ground to a uniform consistency with a tissue grinder. Samples are steeped overnight at 4 degrees C in the dark.  The extract is clarified by centrifugation.  The fluorescence of the extract is measured before and after acidification using a fluorometer calibrated against a spectrophotometer using a pure CHLA standard.
REFERENCE: Strickland and Parsons; 1972  A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis.  Bulletin 167 (2nd Edition) Fisheries Research Board of Canada; Ottawa; Canada.

PARAMETER: CHLA and FLUOR
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD AND OTHER DESCRIPTION: In-situ measurement of in-vivo chlorophyll using a probe attached to a multi-parameter sonde.  The instrument induces chlorophyll to fluorescence by shining a beam of light and then measuring the higher wavelength light which is emitted as a result of the fluorescence process.  The output is processed via the sonde software providing readings in UG/L. 
REFERENCE: YSI 6-Series Environmental Monitoring Systems Manual.  Revision A.  May 1999.  YSI, Inc.; Yellow Spring: Oh: 264p.

PARAMETER NAME: SPCOND, conductivity, in-situ specific conductance at 25 C
CBP METHOD:  F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: A calibrated conductivity sensor attached to a multi-probe sonde is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading. 
REFERENCE: YSI 6-Series Environmental Monitoring Systems Manual.  Revision A.  May 1999.  YSI, Inc.; Yellow Spring: Oh: 264p.

PARAMETER NAME: DO
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  306.1 In-situ Membrane Electrode. A calibrated dissolved oxygen sensor attached to a multi-probe sonde is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading. 
REFERENCE: YSI 6-Series Environmental Monitoring Systems Manual.  Revision A.  May 1999.  YSI, Inc.; Yellow Spring: Oh: 264p.

PARAMETER NAME: DO_SAT
CBP METHOD: F01 306
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: In-situ Membrane Electrode. A calibrated dissolved oxygen sensor attached to a multi-probe sonde is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading.  DO relative to the theoretical value at saturation (%) is then recorded.
REFERENCE: YSI 6-Series Environmental Monitoring Systems Manual.  Revision A.  May 1999.  YSI, Inc.; Yellow Spring: Oh: 264p.

PARAMETER NAME: EPAR_S, PAR at surface
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: Reference measurement for incident radiation at surface of the water.  Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is measured in air using a terrestrial type quantum light sensor (LI-COR, LI-190SB or equivalent) pointed upwards.  Units are micromoles per second per square meter, which are equivalent to microeinsteins per second per square meter.  One EPAR_S value is taken as close as possible in time to each underwater value collected.
REFERENCE: 

PARAMETER NAME: EPARD_Z, in-situ, downwelling PAR
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is measured underwater using an underwater type quantum sensor (LI-COR, LI-190SB or equivalent) pointing up in the water column.  An initial underwater light reading is taken at 0.1 meter depth, then at 0.5 meter increments.  Units are micromoles per second per square meter, which are equivalent to microeinsteins per second per square meter. 
REFERENCE:

PARAMETER NAME: FSS, fixed suspended solids
CBP METHOD:  L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  160.4
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 160.4.

PARAMETER NAME: NH4F
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 350.1, 349.0
REFERENCE: EPA. 1983.  Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes.  USEPA-600/4-79-020.  METHOD 350.1; PP. 350.1/1-6

PARAMETER NAME: NO23F
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 353.2, 353.4
REFERENCE: A. EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 353.2.
B. EPA, 1993. EPA/600/R-93/100. Method 353.2, Rev 2.

PARAMETER NAME: NO2F, nitrite nitrogen (filtered), automated, colorimetric, diazotization
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 353.2
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 353.2.

PARAMETER NAME: PH, in-situ electrode method
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  150.1, A calibrated pH electrode, (corrects for temperature) attached to a multi-probe sonde, is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading.
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 150.1.

PARAMETER NAME: PHEO
CBP METHOD: L03
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 455.0
REFERENCE: Methods for the determination of chemical substances in marine and estuarine matrices - 2ND Ed.; 1997.  METHOD 445.0

PARAMETER NAME: PIP
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: Particulates on a  0.7 um Glass fiber filter are dried at 103-105 Deg C for 3 hours.   Phosphate is extracted with  1 N HCL overnight and measured by the automated ascorbic acid method for PO4.
REFERENCE: Aspila, Agemian and Chau. 1976. “A semi-automated method for the determination of inorganic, organic, and total phosphate in sediments”: Analyst 101:187-197.

PARAMETER NAME: PO4F, orthophosphate, (filtered), automated, ascobic acid
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 365.1, 365.5
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 365.1.
EPA, 1993. EPA/600/R-93/100. Method 365.1, Rev 2.
EPA, 1997. 2nd Edition, EPA/600/R-97/072, Method 365.5

PARAMETER NAME: PP, particulate phosphorus, semi-automated, direct
CBP METHOD:  L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: Particulates on a 0.7um glass fiber filter are weighed, then combusted @ 550C to convert organically bound phosphorus to phosphate.  Phosphate is extracted with HCL and measured by the automated ascorbic acid method for PO4.
REFERENCE: Aspila, Agemian and Chau, 1976. “A Semi-automated method for the determination of inorganic, organic, and total phosphate in sediments”, Analyst 101:187-197.

PARAMETER NAME: SALINITY, in-situ measurement
CBP METHOD:  L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  A calibrated conductivity sensor, which corrects for temperature, is attached to a multi-probe sonde which is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading.  The instrument then converts conductivity to temperature. 
REFERENCE: YSI 6-Series Environmental Monitoring Systems Manual.  Revision A.  May 1999.  YSI, Inc.; Yellow Spring: Oh: 264p.
                          
PARAMETER NAME: SECCHI, 20 cm secchi disk
CBP METHOD: F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  A 20 cm diameter secchi disk is lowered into the water and the depth (to the nearest 0.05 meter) at which the black and white quadrants can no longer be distinguished is averaged with the depth at which the black and white quadrants can again be distinguished.
REFERENCE: Tyler, John. 1968. The Secchi Disk, Limnology and Oceanography, 13(1):1-6.

PARAMETER NAME: TDN, total dissolved nitrogen, alkaline persulfate wet oxidation + EPA 353.2
CBP METHOD:L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: Pre-filtered samples are run through an alkaline persulfate wet oxidation to change all N-containing compounds into nitrate.  Nitrate concentration is determined using an auto analyzer equipped with a cadmium reduction column.
REFERENCE:  D''Elia, C.F., P.A. Steudler and N. Corwin, 1977. “'Determination of total nitrogen in aqueous samples using persulfate digestion.”  Limnology and Oceanography, 22:760-764
                          
PARAMETER NAME: TDP, total dissolved phosphorus, alkaline persulfate wet oxidation + EPA 365.1
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: Filtered samples are run through an alkaline persulfate wet oxidation, which turns acidic and changes all P-containing compounds into phosphate.  Phosphorus is measured as PO4 using EPA 365.1, an automated spectrophotometric method.
REFERENCE: D''Elia, C.F., P.A. Steudler and N. Corwin, 1977. ''Determination of total nitrogen in aqueous samples using persulfate digestion.  Limnology and Oceanography, 22:760-764.

PARAMETER NAME: TSS, total suspended solids, gravimetric, dried at 103-105 C
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  160.2
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983. USEPA-600/4-79-020.  Method 160.2.

PARAMETER NAME: TURB_NTU, turbidity, nephelometric method
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  180.1  A nephelometric sensor is attached to a multi-probe sonde which is lowered into a water body and allowed to stabilize prior to taking the meter reading
REFERENCE: EPA, 1993. EPA/600/R93/100, Method 180.1, Rev 2.
                          
PARAMETER NAME: VSS, volatile suspended solids, gravimetric, ignition at 550 C
CBP METHOD: L01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION: 160.4
REFERENCE: EPA, 1983.  USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 160.4
                          
PARAMETER NAME:  WTEMP, water temperature, in-situ
CBP METHOD:  F01
EPA METHOD OR OTHER DESCRIPTION:  170.1
REFERENCE:  EPA, 1983.  USEPA-600/4-79-020. Method 170.1

 

Entity and Attribute Overview:
In the database there is a WQ_CRUISE, WQ_DATA, WQ_DATA_BMDL, WQ_KD, WQ_STATIONS WQ_PROFILES and WQ_EVENT table as well as a dataset from each of the 110 Dataflow cruises that were completed in 2007. 

Entity and Attribute Detail Citation:
WQ_STATIONS table contains station name, location and detailed information.  WQ_CRUISES table contains the cruise name, dates and comments about the cruise.  The WQ_EVENT table contains weather data for the stations.  The WQ_KD table contains light data collected during the vertical profile on stations.  The WQ_DATA table contains physiochemical profile data and nutrient data.  The WQ_DATA_BMDL table contains the actual instrument values obtained for samples below the method detection.  The WQ_PROFILES table contains profiles of DO, pH, Salinity, Specific Conductivity, and Temperature at each verification station.                                     

Direct Spatial reference Method:
Point

Latitude Resolution:
.00001

Longitude Resolution:
.00001

Geographic Coordinate Units:
Decimal Degrees

Horizontal Datum Name:
NAD 83

Semi-major Axis:
6378137

Denominator of Flattening Ratio:
298.257